Landlocked, mountainous and rich in natural resources, the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic is mainly driven by agriculture (approx. 40 percent of employment), extractive industries, hydropower energy, service and construction sectors. Over time, this dependency on natural resources, however, has resulted in land degradation and desertification, posing threats to the population, environment and ultimately, the sustainability of the economy. 

The long-term National Development Strategy 2040 outlines the country’s overall commitment to sustainable and inclusive growth, aiming for integrated policies that can balance the social, economic and environmental dimensions of development. 

An accompanying five-year development programme – Unity, Trust and Creation (2018-2022) — accompanies the strategy, providing a medium-term framework for all national, sub-national and sectoral strategies and an additional Green Economy Programme (2019-2023) was created to focus on green energy, agriculture, industry, low carbon economy and environment, friendly transport, sustainable tourism, waste management and natural ecosystems sectors. 

PAGE has been supporting the Kyrgyz Republic since 2016, namely assisting the government in its efforts to integrate Inclusive Green Economy (IGE) goals into national planning processes. With evidence-based analysis, PAGE is also working with the government on sectoral reforms in green industry, sustainable agriculture and jobs and strengthening institutional capacities around IGE diagnostics, coordination, finance and public procurement.

This has contributed to several Sustainable Development Goals, including:

LOOKING FORWARD

With the support of PAGE and partners, the government has built strong foundations for transformational green economy change. 

Going forward, PAGE will continue work in areas such as waste management, sustainable finance, green jobs, in line with the “Green Economy National Programme for 2019-2023”.  

Additionally, as part of its targeted green recovery efforts, PAGE is supporting the Kyrgyz Republic in creating a policy enabling environment for enhancing the sustainability and growth of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) as a key avenue for a green recovery, as well as a National Green Investment and Credit Fund to mobilize public and private finance for greening the economic recovery. 

Learn more about PAGE work in the Kyrgyz Republic in our 2020 Annual Report

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KEY THEMATIC & SECTORAL AREAS

  • National development planning  
  • Green Economy modeling 
  • Green Jobs 
  • Sustainable Finance 
  • Green Industry & Trade 
  • Waste management

CAPACITY BUILDING

  • Bishkek International Finance Forum 
  • Workshop on Education for Green Economy 
  • Green Economy Learning  
  • Clean Air and Green Cities Workshop 
  • Training of journalists on green economy  
  • Environmental and Social Risk Analysis Training 
  • Workshop on International Framework of Eco-Industrial Park 

KYRGYZ REPUBLIC & PAGE BY NUMBERS

Policies Supported: 9

Assessments: 8

National institutions & ministries partnering: 20

Initiatives providing co-financing: 4

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NATIONAL POLICYMAKING

NATIONAL POLICYMAKING

PAGE work has focused on establishing a foundation to develop, measure and assess national policies relating to sustainability and green economy. Under the lead of the Ministry of Economy, a series of activities have contributed to the alignment of IGE goals with national policymaking:

Guiding national decision-making

Following the adoption of the National Development Strategy 2040, and the accompanying five-year development programme Unity, Trust and Creation in 2018, a critical milestone was approval of the Green Economy Development Programme in November 2019. The Programme was officially adopted in July 2020, supported by a detailed plan and indicators to monitor progress. It incorporates several studies and roadmaps developed with PAGE support on green finance, procurement and learning, as well as the first results of PAGE’s macroeconomic modelling. The Kyrgyz Republic has also demonstrated its commitment to IGE through ratification of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change in 2019. This work supports SDG 13, target 13.2, and SDG 17, target 17.14, on integrating climate change measures into national policies and enhancing policy coherence.

Modelling IGE policies and monitoring implementation

Several activities are being undertaken to support effective implementation and monitoring of IGE policies, including:

  • Modelling policy scenarios: PAGE began providing green economy modelling support to the Ministry of Economy in 2018. With the support of an international expert, modelling work started with the identification of seven sectors and three thematic areas for policy intervention. The work has continued in 2019 and 2020, with a focus on creating an integrated simulation model, model validation and capacity-building. The final green economy model was completed in 2020 and will continually be updated with the latest available statistical data.
  • Monitoring implementation across national programmes: PAGE is supporting the President’s Office and the Ministry of Economy to build a monitoring system for the implementation of key development strategies and programmes. This includes the long-term Strategy-2040, five year programme 2018-2023 and Green Economy Development Programme. Five training workshops were conducted with the Unit of Strategic Development, Policy, Economy and Finance (SDPEF) of the President’s Office to strengthen knowledge and skills around monitoring and reporting. At the Ministry of Economy work is focused on improving data collection and reporting, monitoring and evaluations systems. This, together with modelling on policy scenarios, supports SDG 17, targets 17.18 and 17.19, by increasing data and measurements of progress towards the SDGs.   
  • Establishing national mechanisms to support IGE implementation: In 2019, the PAGE Inter-Ministerial Board was set up to guide IGE implementation, consisting of 11 ministries and departments and Chaired by the Ministry of Economy. In January 2020, the Government established a Coordination Commission on Green Economy and Climate Change, with PAGE supporting this process. This Commission will, among other things, coordinate action of the state executive authorities, local governments, non-profit and international organizations to support implementation of the National Green Economy Programme. This supports SDG 17, targets 17.14 and 17.16 by enhancing policy coherence for sustainable development.
  • Demonstrating country ownership of the IGE agenda: In November 2019, the Green Economy Week focusing on “Strong Regions” was held in Bishkek. More than 35 events were organised, including a two-day training on PAGE’s macroeconomic analysis, making it the world’s biggest green economy week. This event demonstrates the high degree of country ownership of the IGE agenda and commitment to PAGE, thereby supporting SDG 17, targets 17.15 and 17.15.

SECTORAL AND THEMATIC REFORM

SECTORAL AND THEMATIC REFORM

PAGE work has focused on the identification of priority sectors for support, as well as the inclusion of specific sectoral and thematic policy documents into the newly adopted Green Economy Development Programme. These include:

Sustainable finance

In 2018, PAGE together with GIZ, OSCE and the OECD supported the development of a Sustainable Finance Roadmap. Presented at a Policy Dialogue in June 2018, this Roadmap has been incorporated into the Green Economy Development Programme. In 2020, PAGE began supporting the implementation of this section of the Programme, focusing on the analysis of existing legislative framework relevant to sustainable finance and the level of its enforcement and capacity-building on the principles of the Sustainable Finance.  In line with this, PAGE released a report in May 2020 ‘Investment opportunities for the development of a green economy in Kyrgyzstan’, which analyzed possible directions for green investments in Kyrgyzstan and provided recommendations. This work contributes to achieving SDG 17, target 17.3, by supporting the mobilization of financial resources for developing countries. 

Sustainable urban development

PAGE provided expertise on analysis of legislation on urban development with emphasis on green economy and developed recommendations to integrate the aspects of inclusive green economy in the context of climate change into the legal and normative acts (LNA) and normative-technical documents (NTD) on sustainable development with focus on territorial-spatial planning, comprehensive development of green city-building, increasing energy-efficiency in city infrastructure construction, taking into account gender aspects and the Sustainable Development Goals. A specific event was held at the 2019 Green Economy Week on how green economy approaches can drive modern urban development in big cities, facilitating exchange of ideas and collaboration. This work supports SDG 11, target 11.3, by making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable for all.

Sustainable agriculture

In 2019, PAGE commenced support in the area of sustainable agriculture, starting with an in-depth assessment of specific subsidies and taxes and potential subsidy reform scenarios. This work is complementary to BIOFIN’s activity on reforming environmentally harmful agricultural subsides. This will provide further in-depth assessment of specific subsides and taxes and potential reform options, including the scale and potential use of revenues. This work contributes to SDG 13, target 13.2 by integrating climate change measures into national policies.

Sustainable industrial policy

In 2018, PAGE completed an assessment of green industry and trade that was used as a chapter for the Green Economy Development Programme. In 2019 the Government approved the National Sustainable Industrial Development Strategy supported by the UNIDO programme for country partnership (PCP). Building on this Strategy and the GITA, PAGE plans to take this work forward with the development of a National Industrial Resource Efficiency Policy based on the resource efficiency demonstration on metal and cement industry.  This work contributes to SDG 7, target 7.3, by seeking to improve energy efficiency and SDG 9, target 9.2, by promoting sustainable industrialization. It also supports SDG 12 target 12.2, though improving industrial resource efficiency and waste reduction.

Green jobs

In 2018, PAGE finalized a Skills for Green Jobs Assessment outlining challenges and opportunities relating to capacity development in priority sectors to meet future skills needs. PAGE has also been supporting the development of the Green Jobs Assessment Model (GJAM) prototype to inform the impact of green policies on the labour market and household income distribution. This contributes to SDG 8, target 8.5, by supporting decent work and SDG 17, target 17.14, by promoting policy coherence.

STRENGTHENING CAPACITY

STRENGTHENING CAPACITY

In addition to the Green Economy Learning Needs Assessment developed in 2018, a core element of Kyrgyz Republic’s capacity building efforts is the annual Green Economy Week, which supports knowledge-sharing on both national and international levels. Several other initiatives to build individual and institutional capacity have been completed.

Individual capacity building

Several activities have been conducted in line with sectoral and thematic priorities, supporting SDG 4, target 4.7, by enhancing knowledge and skills and SDG 13, target 13.3, by improving education on climate change. Examples include:

  • Green modelling: Modelling training was carried out as part of Green Economy Week in November 2019. A training was also conducted by an international expert to support capacity strengthening within the Ministry of Economy, with 15 attendees. A second workshop was supported by GIZ to further bolster knowledge within this group. In 2020, PAGE supported the Ministry of Economy in conducting 25 online training sessions on green economy modelling. In addition, PAGE is in discussions with this international expert on a global course on IGE modelling;
  • Monitoring and reporting: Five training workshops have been conducted with staff from the Unit of Strategic Development Policy, Economy and Finance (SDPEF) of the President’s Office to strengthen their skills on monitoring and reporting;
  • Media awareness-raising: In 2018, 12 journalists received training on sustainable financing and procurement, green energy and environment in advance of Green Week;
  • General IGE knowledge: A collection of analytical and information articles have been compiled into a digest on Green Economy in Russian, aiming to serve as a knowledge product for civil servants;
  • Training on environmental accounting and labour statistics: In 2020, PAGE assisted the NSC in the development of environmental statics in the form of training and working sessions by an international expert on SEEA, and provided training for 10 participants on measuring informal employment; and

  • Green jobs assessment modelling training: In 2020, PAGE supported a three-week online training course on the GJAM for 30 staff of AVZUR, the National Bank and the National Statistical Committee.

Building institutional capacity

  • Incorporating IGE into higher education: The Alliance of Universities on Green Economy and Sustainable Development (AVZUR) was created in direct response to the recommendations from the Green Economy Learning Assessment, which identified the need for increased collaboration between higher-level educational institutions in the Kyrgyz Republic on issues related to green economy learning. The creation of  AVZUR has been spearheaded by the Centre for Environment and Development (CED) and AUCA, and 12 Kyrgyz universities have already joined the initiative. Since 2020, PAGE has been supporting AVZUR in integrating green economy learning into specific courses of various university degrees, thus building the capacities of current and future decision-makers and ensuring the sustainability of PAGE interventions. Alongside the development of the courses, large-scale efforts were carried out to raise awareness among young people about the green economy. To this end, AVZUR announced a #generation GREENEGY competition among young people to create projects that highlight and popularize issues of green economy, with seven winners chosen in 2021 to receive grants for project implementation. This supports SDG 17, target 17.17, by promoting effective partnerships.
  • Implementing a National Strategy for Climate Change Learning: In April 2021, the Kyrgyz Republic launched its National Climate Change Learning Strategy, laid out in its Comprehensive Action Plan for Climate Change EducationThe strategy was developed to aid the Kyrgyz Republic in its efforts to be more ecological and climate-resilient in practice, taking a systematic approach to strengthening the capacity of government officials and communities. Since 2019, together with UNITAR, the Kyrgyz Republic has been analyzing existing priorities, initiatives, and strategies to identify priority areas and capacity-building needs. In April 2021, a Youth Climate Dialogue took place in Bishkek for more than 100 young participants, helping to raise awareness and involve youth in climate change processes - one of the learning priorities of the Strategy. This contributes to SDG 4, targets 4.7, by providing access for learning on sustainable development and SDG 13, targets 13.3 and 13.b, by improving education on climate change, especially among youth.

South-South cooperation

The exchange between the Kyrgyz Republic and Mongolia is a leading example of South-South and Triangular cooperation recognized in September 2018 in a report highlighting best practices in South-South and Triangular cooperation throughout the entire UN system. Centred around two study visits and the yearly Green Economy Weeks, the exchange focused on a wide range of policy processes supporting a green economy transition, including the development of national plans, sustainable public procurement, sustainable finance and waste management. National Green Economy Weeks have also provided a forum for exchange with other countries, beyond the initial objective to enhance national ownership. Kyrgyz Republic continued exchanges with Mongolia into 2021 focusing on mechanisms to enhance green finance. Additional learning exchange took place with Kazakhstan on environmental education. This work aligns with SDG 17, targets 17.9 and 17.11 on global and regional collaboration.

COUNTRY FOCAL POINTS

Coordinating Agency Focal PointTim Scott (UNDP)
Rie Tsutsumi (UNEP)
PAGE Project CoordinatorNurlan Shamkanov (UNDP)
Government Focal PointsMr. Daniar Imanaliev, First Deputy Minister, Ministry of Economy
Ms. Aisulu Amanova, Head of Division, Ministry of Economy

COUNTRY ANNUAL PROGRESS