The following reports are country reports produced in collaboration between PAGE and the Government of the Country. The reports are designed to privide technical, analytical and context specific advice on a particular subject. It is expected that the content of these reports will then be used to guide the country in their next steps toward transitioning to a green economy.
Burkina Faso has maintained consistently strong macroeconomic performance in spite of multiple shocks and regional uncertainty, with an average growth of 5.9% from 2000 to 2012. Yet, with a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of US$1,298.00, Burkina Faso has a major challenge in strengthening the foundations of its socio-economic development. Concurrently, the country is experiencing several severe losses of natural resources, for instance degradation of land and water resources, soil erosion and deforestation. These are further compounded by constant flooding and cyclic droughts, shortage of energy along with significant economic costs.
Dans cette dynamique, au Burkina Faso et comme pour la plupart des autres pays africains, les premières stratégies ont été fondées essentiellement sur l’industrialisation par la substitution des importations dont la finalité est de mettre fin aux déséquilibres macroéconomiques causées par une mauvais gestion des affaires publiques. Mais, dès les années 1970, cette approche va se révéler inefficace, notamment avec les chocs pétroliers successifs, la volatilité des prix et l’accroissement des problems d’endettement. Elle est alors abandonnée au profit de l’approche basée sur l’élimination des facteurs faisant obstacle aux exportations et sur la base de la théorie des avantages comparatifs. Avec les résultats insuffisants enregistrés au fil du temps, différentes autres politiques sont expérimentées.
Green economy requires the transformation of production and consumption or lifestyles towards economic activities that enhance and preserve environmental quality, while using energy, water and natural resources more efficiently; and reduce social inequalities. At the operational level, in a green economy, growth in income and employment is driven by investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution; enhance energy and resource efficiency; prevent loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services; and reduce unemployment and poverty, especially among the poorest segments of society. The approach is based on sound economic analysis of current trends, risks and opportunities, as well as on taking stock of national experiences in applying more integrated policy tools, effectively. In fact, there could be several operational definitions of the green economy at the national level, where the national context shapes priorities and goals for greening the existing (often unique) economic structure of a country.
This study – the Green Economy Assessment Report for Ghana - provides comparative scenarios for future growth that estimates economic, environmental and social impacts. It provides recommendations on how greening the agriculture, energy and forestry sectors can catalyze a transition to a green economy in Ghana. Furthermore the study shows clear economic, environmental and social benefits from a transition to a green economy such as strong economic development coupled with more efficient use and preservation of natural resources. Ultimately a transition to a green economy is helpful for Ghana achieving multiple Sustainable Development Goals..
This report describes the current status of fiscal policy in Ghana, with the aim of identifying potential fiscal space for green investment, thereby supporting the transition to a more sustainable and inclusive economy. Specifically, the report describes recent developments in environmental fiscal reform (EFR) in Ghana, including the partial removal of fossil fuel subsidies in 2013. While the prices of petrol, kerosene, diesel, residual fuel oil (RFO) and liquefied. Based on the analysis of the country’s fiscal status, a variety of reform opportunities are presented and assessed, including the restructuring of taxes and incentives across key sectors to support the development of green businesses and the creation of income and employment opportunities.
Green Economy (GE) is the pathway to achieving sustainable development in contemporary times, especially in developing economies such as Ghana. The GE concept entails a paradigm shift in contemporary development thinking, contrasting the dangers posed by the unsustainable approaches to development in the past decades. Practically, it involves changes in production, consumption and lifestyle towards economic activities that use natural resources efficiently, enhance and preserve environmental quality, and remove social inequalities. Hence, it is not uncommon to have several operational definitions of GE at the national level, since the national contexts shape the priorities and goals regarding the sectors to green. Although Ghana has no current official definition of GE, the concept finds space in the country as most of Ghana's development priorities are in harmony with the concept's key objectives.
This Ghana Green Industry and Trade Assessment is one of several efforts to identify actions supportive of a green economy transition in Ghana, in this case through sustainable industry and trade. The assessment starts with a review of the multiple planning and policy regimes that have the potential for greening industry, encouraging the manufacture of environmental and renewable energy technologies and supporting green industry trade. It moves on to describe the current pattern of industrial production and green industry trade and the environmental impact and resource use of industrial production, to the extent limited data allow. It then proposes a new initiative for greening industry, describes several options that could reduce the policy implementation gap and suggests actions that could green trade in manufactured goods.
The Government of Mauritius has adopted a sustainable development framework called “Maurice, Ile Durable”. The ILO has collaborated in shaping the framework’s implementation strategies, especially with regard to the employment dimension. The purpose of the collaboration was to strengthen the framework by making an operational link with jobs, skills, enterprise development and the role of employers’ and workers’ organizations. This report summarizes the results of the ILO support provided in 2011 and 2012. The work was undertaken through a Regular Budget Support Allocation made available by the Regional Office for Africa. The bulk of the analysis and advice was provided by consultants based in Mauritius. ILO experts from Geneva and Bangkok contributed with technical guidance and
In 2008, the government of Mauritius elaborated an ambitious development vision, Maurice Île Durable (MID), which aims to steer the country towards a sustainable development path by promoting green economy activities through fiscal and other measures. The government also developed a Green Paper called “Towards a National Policy for a Sustainable Mauritius”, which articulates its policy goals related to the MID and sustainability in general. Environmental fiscal reform (EFR), which includes taxation and pricing measures that can raise fiscal revenues while furthering environmental goals, is a potentially powerful tool for achieving Mauritius’ MID vision. This report provides an overview of the current fiscal framework in Mauritius and identifies potential areas where additional fiscal measures can be put in place for green economy activities. It also provides some policy options for EFR for the government to consider in order to green key sectors and to create income and employment generation opportunities.
Mauritius has embraced the objective of a green economy development path. A number of fiscal instruments for environmental protection and incentives for green investment are already in place. The Government and the Maurice Ile Durable (MID) Commission have also pioneered a number of environmental policy initiatives. This study identifies areas with potential for improvement through the rationalization of current fiscal measures and the mobilization of further resources for innovation and investment. It sets out options for the reform of tax instruments applied to fuels used in electricity generation and transport, and identifies reforms to pricing policies pertaining to waste collection and domestic water.
The Green jobs mapping study was carried out at the end of 2013 as part of the inception phase of Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) in Mongolia– an initiative implemented by four of the United Nations specialized agencies and programmes. This report was written by the Economic Policy and Competitiveness Research Center (The EPCRC) in line with contributions of the International Labour Organisation. Moreover, the EPCRC has also conducted an independent “Stocktaking report of the Green Economy in Mongolia”, which is closely related to this Green jobs mapping study, also within the inception phase of the PAGE project.
With its high economic growth on the back of its mining boom, Mongolia knows first-hand about the challenges of transitioning to a more socially inclusive and environmentally friendly economy. The Government of Mongolia recognizes the unique opportunity to lift itself to the rank of prosperous countries within a generation, while accepting the challenges associated with sustainable and equitable socio-economic development that enables Mongolia to adapt and thrive in the twenty-first century. In response, the Government of Mongolia has enacted a series of environmental laws and is developing a Green Development Strategy, which has the potential to be the most significant piece of development policy since Mongolia’s transition in the early 1990s.
The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) supports countries that are interested in making the transition towards more inclusive economies, use resources more efficiently and have low carbon emissions. The government of Peru, through its ministries, will lead the process of implementing the various PAGE activities and provide strategic direction.
En un ambiente de desaceleración económica global, el Perú ha logrado mantener tasas de crecimiento positivas y estables que han permitido lograr avances importantes en la reducción de la pobreza. El modelo económico actual se basa principalmente en la explotación y exportación de materias primas, actividades responsables de altas intensidades de uso de materiales y, por lo tanto, con altos costos socioecológicos. En términos económicos, el modelo de economía extractiva enfrenta riesgos debido a la volatilidad de los precios de las materias primas en los mercados globales. A largo plazo, el país tiene que adoptar estrategias de desarrollo industrial que fomenten la innovación a fin de garantizar un equilibrio entre el crecimiento económico rápido y la sostenibilidad ambiental y social. La diversificación industrial y la transformación estructural son elementos claves para lograr un desarrollo económico inclusivo y sostenible en el futuro. Crear un buen ambiente para el desarrollo industrial verde requiere establecer un campo de juego para el sector privado que promueva el crecimiento sostenible, la asunción de riesgos y la innovación.
El Perú ha tomado un exitoso primer paso hacia el desarrollo de una estrategia nacional de crecimiento verde, con el diseño de su estrategia nacional de biocomercio. Sin embargo, la transición hacia una economía verde necesita una hoja de ruta exhaustiva. Para tal fin, el presente estudio de evaluación inicial marca un hito importante. El Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA) conjuntamente con las otras agencias del sistema que forman parte de la Alianza para la Acción hacia una Economía Verde (PAGE, por sus siglas en ingles), ha ayudado al Gobierno de Perú a evaluar las políticas públicas dirigidas a alcanzar las prioridades nacionales y los Objetivos del Desarrollo Sostenible. Este estudio de evaluación inicial identifica los retos claves, las oportunidades, las contrapartes relevantes y las áreas prioritarias para la transición hacia el crecimiento verde, así como ideas para el futuro trabajo de PAGE en Perú.
In 2012, Senegal recorded a growth rate of 3.6 per cent, 1.5 per cent higher than in 2011, but still below the 4.5 per cent average achieved during the period of economic growth from 1994 to 2005. Although the poverty rate declined to 46.7 per cent in 2011, down from 48.3 per cent in 2006, the number of Senegalese living in poverty increased by 10.6 per cent from 2006 to 2011, in real terms. More worryingly, the extent and severity of poverty has increased. In fact, Senegal is facing huge challenges in achieving a strong, sustainable and inclusive economy. Extreme poverty, unemployment, underemployment, the structural weakness of an economy largely dependent on natural resources, as well as the lack of capacity for growth and development, all of which are exacerbated by environmental deterioration, are obstructing efforts to make concrete improvements to the quality of life of a booming population. The green economy must be promoted if these barriers are to be removed.
Depuis son accession à l’indépendance, le Sénégal a défini successivement plusieurs stratégies de développement industriel afin de donner au secteur toute son importance et de promouvoir la croissance économique et à la redistribution des revenus. Aujourd’hui, l’émergence d’un secteur industriel prospère et durable au Sénégal est possible. Les autorités publiques sénégalaises ont placé l’industriel au coeur du processus de développement économique et social, renouvelant ainsi une forte volonté politique. En effet, l’industrie est l’un des premiers leviers stratégiques sur lesquels comptent s’appuyer les pouvoirs publics pour l’émergence du pays. Le discours politique ambiant est sans équivoque.
Ethiopia is globally recognized for integrating the MDGs in its development agenda, and it has been actively engaged in the post-2015 development agenda setting process. Ethiopia played an instrumental role in crafting the Common African Position on post-2015 development agenda. It is also one of the countries where national consultations took place to identify potential areas of focus in the emerging post-2015 global development framework. Ensuring sustainable human and social development came out of the consultations as one of the key post-2015 development agenda.
Vietnam has achieved remarkable poverty reduction over the last three decades. Regardless of different poverty lines, the national poverty headcount has been reduced year on year from, it fell by half between 2002 and 2008 (from 28.9% to 14.5%) and has continued to be reduced from 20.7% in 2010 to 17.2% in 2012. In parallel with the income poverty reduction, a notable progress in the non-income dimensions of poverty has been made, including health care, education and access to infrastructure and durables.
2016 is also an important year for China’s ecological civilization approach to green development. China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) clarifies the overall goals for building a balanced and prosperous society. The Plan highlights the idea of shared development that is innovative, coordinated, green, and open, and includes a series of policy reforms and measures that are intended to promote green development, ecological civilization, and environmental protection. Green economy can play an important role in helping national and local governments to explore new green development paths and innovative solutions to environmental problems that will help them to achieve the targets of 13th Five-Year period.
During the last ten years, Rwanda has experienced one of the fastest periods of growth and socio-economic progress in its history. Rwanda was ranked number 10 among the fastest growing economies in the world during the decade of 2000-2010. At the same time more than a million people have been lifted out of poverty. Population growth is stabilizing and the country has made great strides towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals and realizing the national vision of becoming a middle income country by 2020.