Kazakhstan is an upper middle-income country whose economic growth has largely depended on exploitation of fossil fuels since independence. However, climate change, environmental degradation and waste pollution present significant threats. Kazakhstan is one of the biggest emitters of CO2 in the world in terms of emissions per capita, it is also flood-prone, exposed to extreme temperatures and impacted by glacier melting droughts.

The Government has taken progressive steps to promote sustainable development with ambitious targets set in the National Development Strategy Kazakhstan 2050 and Green Economy Concept. The country is also in the process of revising its Environmental Code to set the frame for sustainable use of natural resources.

Kazakhstan joined PAGE in 2018 to support the implementation of its National Development Strategy and development of a legal regulatory framework to implement the updated Environmental Code. On a sectoral level, waste management is considered a focus area, together with green technology, public procurement, fiscal policy and building sustainable and climate-resilient cities.

PAGE work in Kazakhstan aims to contribute to the following SDGs: SDG 3, 7 and 13 - through a focus on waste management and energy and emission-related challenges and opportunities; SDGs 8, 9, 12 and 15 - through a focus on green technologies; and SDG 11 - through work on green economy concepts on a subnational level.


  • Reduction of subsidies for fossil fuel-generated energy
  • Addressing the use of hazardous chemicals in agriculture
  • Promotion of fiscal instruments to develop green technology
  • Facilitating South-South cooperation and sharing of international experiences