PAGE country stories Mongolia


Over the past 25 years, Mongolia has transformed into a vibrant democracy, with triple the level of GDP per capita and increasing school enrolments, and dramatic declines in maternal mortality and child mortality.  With vast agricultural and mineral resources and an increasingly educated population, Mongolia’s long-term development prospects are bright. At the same time Mongolia continues to face important environmental challenges, such as land degradation, air and water pollution and increasing carbon dioxide emissions. The economy continues to wrestle with persistent economic imbalances, suffering from a continued weakening of the commodity market and slower growth in the key export market of China (World Bank).

PAGE started its engagement in Mongolia in 2013, supporting the development of the National Green Development Policy (NGDP) which was approved by Parliament in 2014. Since then the country has experienced significant change. The country saw a high point in economic production with a GDP of 12.58 billion USD in 2013, contracting to 11.16 billion USD in 2016 (World Bank). 

Mongolia’s Transition to an Inclusive Green Economy

In January 2016, the Cabinet approved an Action Plan for implementation of the National Green Development Policy and one month later the State Great Khural, the Mongolian Parliament, adopted the Sustainable Development Vision (SDV) 2030. Under its Nationally Determined Contribution, Mongolia committed to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 14% by 2030, compared to the projected emissions under a business as usual scenario.

PAGE objective in Mongolia

PAGE has supported Mongolia in advancing its green development agenda with evidence-based policy appraisal using system dynamics modelling, analysis of different options for implementation of the NGDP, and support for policy development and reform in specific sectors and thematic areas, such as green construction, sustainable public procurement, green economy learning and sustainable finance. 

PAGE is currently supporting Mongolia through:

1. Green Economy Modelling and Policy Assessment

Working with the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) and the Ministry of Finance, PAGE is supporting capacity building for long-term macro-economic planning and forecasting through system dynamics modelling linked to the Green Development Policy. 

2. Green Development Indicators

The National Statistics Office of Mongolia and MET, together with PAGE partners are developing and supporting the adoption of green economy indicators and measurements, taking into account the Sustainable Development Goals.

Targets of Mongolia’s Green Development Policy:

3. Sustainable Public Procurement

In support of the NGDP goal to ensure that by 2020 at least 20% of public procurement would be green, PAGE has supported the Ministry of Finance to incorporate sustainability principles into the national public procurement framework. A status analysis of public procurement, prioritization of goods for sustainable procurement, and a market analysis were conducted and three products (A4 copy paper, printer ink cartridges and lightweight concrete blocks) were selected as priority products to be procured through sustainability criteria. Sustainable public procurement tools and sample tendering materials are under development. PAGE has supported an Amendment to the Law on Public Procurement. The Amendment is expected to be submitted to the Parliament in the second half of 2017 with the potential to have a long-term impact on the sustainability of public procurement in Mongolia. In parallel, an Action Plan for sustainable public procurement will be submitted to Government later this year. 

4. Green Schools and Kindergarten

The NGDP proposes energy efficiency standards and a rating system for green buildings to reduce heat loss through buildings by 20 percent by 2020 and by 40 percent in 2030. PAGE supported the Government to develop the design for a green school building that would showcase how to achieve these efficiency standards. In 2016, the design was completed and is  now ready to be applied to over 220 schools that need to be built over the next 3-4 years nationally (of which 85 need to be built in Ulaanbaatar).  MET and the Ministry of Education Science, Culture and Sports (MESCS) have proposed to build the first prototype school under a loan by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). 

5. National Waste Management Strategy

PAGE partners are supporting applied research to explore recycling opportunities under the National Waste Strategy Development Process led by MET. PAGE carried out a study on industrial waste management and the recycling industry in Mongolia. The report analyzed existing waste management policies e.g. including regulatory, mandatory and voluntary instruments along with the industrial waste management chain. Based on the industrial waste analysis, PAGE is collaborating with MET and MCUD on carrying out a baseline study on waste from end of life vehicles. 

6. Green Economy Learning Strategy

PAGE has been working with Mongolian universities on integrating green economy concepts and approaches into tertiary programmes and curricula. By the end of the PAGE project, a new university course on green economy modelling should be completed for a pilot run in 2018-2019 academic year. A second university course on green trade, as well as a certified training on green buildings to be delivered by the Construction Development Center jointly with the Mongolian University of Science and Technology, will likewise be supported through PAGE. These programmes hold thepotential to reach several hundred graduates and undergraduates per year.  

7. Mobilising Finance for Sustainable Development

PAGE is supporting the Mongolian banking sector in the development of green and inclusive financial products and services in partnership with the UN Environment Finance Initiative. PAGE has supported a study on demand for green credits and contributed to the establishment of a joint working group for creating a Mongolian Green Credit Fund. The Fund is expected to be launched at the next Mongolian Sustainable Finance Forum. 


Training on green economy, sustainable production and trade opportunities




Second Mongolian sustainable finance forum

High-level meeting on Mongolia's pathway to sustainable and green development

SDG and natural resource indicators workshop and training

Mongolia mobilizes partnerships for green development


National forum on sustainable finance, a road to green and sustainable development: policy, planning, and measurement workshop

National Green Economy week and high-level meeting

Workshop to review Green Economy modelling


Green Economy policy assessment, learning and indicators workstream initiated

Sustainable public procurement and green school workstreams initiated

Page Mongolia stocktaking report and green jobs mapping completed


PAGE inception week and planning workshop
high-level forum on green development and PAGE in Mongolian parliament

Mongolia joins PAGE