PAGE country stories Mongolia

Over the past 25 years, Mongolia has transformed into a vibrant democracy, with triple the level of GDP per capita, increasing school enrolments, and dramatic declines in maternal and child mortality.  With vast agricultural and mineral resources and an increasingly educated population, Mongolia is quickly moving toward its long-term development goals. At the same time Mongolia continues to face important environmental challenges, such as land degradation, air and water pollution, and increasing carbon dioxide emissions.

Despite this challenging context, the country’s commitment to alternative economic growth based on environmental sustainability and social inclusiveness remains firm. The Parliament approved in 2014 the National Green Development Policy (NGDP), whose development was supported by PAGE. In January 2016, the Cabinet approved an Action Plan for implementation of the National Green Development Policy (NGDP) and one month later the State Great Khural, the Mongolian Parliament, adopted the Sustainable Development Vision (SDV) 2030. Under its Nationally Determined Contribution, Mongolia committed to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 14% by 2030, compared to the projected emissions under a business as usual scenario.

PAGE’s continued engagement in Mongolia’s green development agenda included technical support through creation and update of evidence-based policy tools, capacity building, and stakeholder consultations in sustainable finance, sustainable public procurement, green jobs, industry and waste management, green economy learning and economic modelling, sustainable trade among others.

In Mongolia, PAGE is contributing towards the achievement of SDG 4(Quality Education), SDG 5 (Gender Equality), SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), SDG 12(Responsible Consumption and Production), SDG 13(Climate Action), and SDG 17 (Partnerships for the Goals).

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PROGRESS 2016                    |                    PROGRESS 2017



Mongolia: July 2018 - Orkhon aimag sustainable and green development policy document was discussed on 12-16 June 2018. In July 2018 the working group of Orkhon aimag worked on Indicators and baseline data to measure the progress of the Orkhon aimag sustainable and green development policy. Planned: Discussion of the policy document by Governor's Board and Aimag Citizens' Assembly. Amendments to the Law on Public Procurement is under discussion at Parliament level

Long-term macro-economic planning and forecasting

Long-term macro-economic planning and forecasting

PAGE supported Mongolia to develop and adopt the National Green Development Policy through technical analysis, inter-sectoral dialogue and stakeholder mobilization, as well as a high-level forum. In particular, PAGE presented the report “Gender Mainstreaming in Green Development Policy of Mongolia” to Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) officers.

For advancing the implementation of the National Green Development Policy, PAGE is providing capacity building support on macroeconomic modeling for the government and universities. Starting in 2018, an undergraduate course on green economy and macroeconomic modeling will be offered at three public universities in Mongolia. The 21 modelling has been introduced as a tool for policy analysis to the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET), the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and a local policy think tank, the Economic Policy and Competitiveness Research Center (EPCRC). In 2016, the EPCRC in collaboration with MET, MOF and PAGE completed a policy assessment report using T21 modelling. In 2017, PAGE and national partners, updated the T21 model by using new statistics data and published a guideline for using the model.

To measure progress towards green development, PAGE partners together with the National Statistics Office (NSO) of Mongolia and the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, have been supporting the development and adoption of indicators. In 2017 NSO approved the list of indicators with appropriate methodology and is now taking this work forward to produce and disseminate green development indicators. With this progress Mongolia will be able to monitor and inform the progress of National Green Development  Policy implementation.

PAGE is also supporting two Mongolian provinces, Orkhon aimag and Dornogovi aimag, to elaborate green development programmes and implement local green initiatives, focusing on the green economy concept, policy planning, and the step-by-step approach to elaborating an National Green Development Policy/SDG-based sub-national development plan.

Supporting partner ministries in advancing policy development and reform in specific sectors and thematic areas identified

Supporting partner ministries in advancing policy development and reform in specific sectors and thematic areas identified

To achieve efficiency standards and to reduce heat loss in buildings, PAGE supported the government to develop the design and a handbook on green school buildings. Moreover, PAGE is supporting the development of a new construction sector policy, the formulation of a ‘business case’ for green buildings. PAGE is also providing capacity development for stakeholders in the construction sector which should further foster up-take of green design elements for public and private buildings. 

To ensure green public procurement, PAGE has helped the Ministry of Finance to incorporate sustainability principles into the national public procurement framework. A status analysis of public procurement, prioritization of goods for sustainable procurement, and a market analysis were conducted. A guideline for sustainable public procurement, sample tendering materials and training programme on SPP were developed with the PAGE support. PAGE has supported an Amendment to the Law on Public Procurement which is under discussion by the Parliament of Mongolia. PAGE further contributed to drafting an Action plan for implementation of the SPP.

PAGE is assisting the Mongolian banking sector in the development of green and inclusive financial products and services in partnership with the UN Environment Finance Initiative. PAGE has contributed to a study on demand for green credits and contributed to the establishment of a joint working group for creating a Mongolian Green Credit Corporation. With PAGE support, the Mongolian Bankers Association, Mongolian Sustainable Finance Association and three universities of Mongolia are working on the development of a university course on Sustainable finance.

PAGE is providing assistance towards the development of a green trade policy in Mongolia. This work supports Mongolia’s efforts to implement the Sustainable Development Vision and NGDP by building the country’s competitiveness in the global trade market and harnessing green trade opportunities.

PAGE partners are providing applied research to explore recycling opportunities under the National Waste Strategy Development Process led by MET. PAGE carried out a study on industrial waste management and the recycling industry in Mongolia. The report analyzed existing waste management policies e.g. including regulatory, mandatory and voluntary instruments along with the industrial waste management chain. Based on the industrial waste analysis, PAGE has collaborated with MET and Ministry of Road and Transportation Development (MRTD) on carrying out a baseline study on waste from end of life vehicles. The study provides specific policy recommendations that could be incorporated into national strategies and an action plan for waste management of end of life vehicles.

PAGE Mongolia has provided technical support on green jobs. In 2017, with the support of PAGE, the National Statistics Office (NSO) of Mongolia published a report on green jobs. The results also allow for employment projection studies thus informing which environmental and/or investment policies have the maximum job creation potential.

Institutionalizing green economy education and training contributing towards individual capacity building

Institutionalizing green economy education and training contributing towards individual capacity building

PAGE has been working with Mongolian universities on integrating green economy concepts and approaches into tertiary programmes and curricula. A new university course on green economy modelling has been completed in 2018-2019 academic year. A second university course on sustainable finance is under development for delivery in 2019. A training on green building design is under development by the the Mongolian University of Science and Technology in collaboration with the Ministry of Construction and Urban Development.